The longest-lived star in the universe can reach an astonishing 10 trillion years! Our solar life is about 10 billion years old, so it seems that the longest-lived star has a lifespan of a thousand times that of the sun! The shortest-lived star in the universe has a lifespan of less than a million years. On a cosmic scale, this life cycle is really short. In general, the longest-lived star in the universe is a red dwarf, and the star with the shortest life is a blue superstar.
In general, the greater the mass of a star, the higher its surface temperature and brightness. But the life of a star is inversely proportional to the mass of the star, that is, the greater the mass of the star, the shorter the life. The smaller the mass, the longer the lifespan. The smallest of all stars is the red dwarf, which is between 0.8% and 50% of the sun. However, its life span can range from hundreds to trillion years, which is closely related to the slow nuclear fusion reaction and its structure in the red dwarf.
Red dwarfs usually have no radiation layer but have a large troposphere. Nuclear fusion reactions occur in a small area, so nuclear fusion can take a long time. To give a few examples, we can see that the star closest to the solar system is an adjacent star. Its mass is about one-eighth of the sun, but its surface temperature is only 2000 degrees Celsius, which is a red dwarf. Its life span is astonishingly 70 billion years, about seven times the life of the sun. The fourth most famous star in Orion is about 20 times the mass of the sun. It is estimated that the pilgrimage was born five million years ago, when the human ancestors might have left the African continent. It is now expanding.
After up to three million years, it will end its life in the form of a supernova explosion. The quality of stars has upper and lower limits: too small to cause nuclear fusion, too large to balance radiation pressure and gravity. The calculations show that the lower limit of the mass of the star is roughly equivalent to the mass of 80 Jupiter, and the upper limit of mass is equivalent to the mass of 130 suns. Based on these two limits, we can roughly calculate the longest and shortest life of stars in the universe.